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Understanding Hyperpigmentation: Causes, Prevention, and Treatment Options

By Josh Sim, Aesthetic and Non-Surgical Facelift Specialist


Laser Pigmentation Removal in London

Hyperpigmentation is a common skin condition where patches of skin become darker than the surrounding areas. This occurs due to the excess production of melanin, the pigment responsible for skin color. It can affect people of all skin types and ages. In this blog, we will delve into the causes, types, and treatments of hyperpigmentation, providing you with a comprehensive understanding of how to manage and prevent this condition effectively.

Causes of Hyperpigmentation

Hyperpigmentation can result from various factors, including:

  1. Sun Exposure: Ultraviolet (UV) rays from the sun stimulate the production of melanin as a protective response, which can lead to sunspots or age spots.

  2. Hormonal Changes: Conditions such as melasma are triggered by hormonal fluctuations during pregnancy or from taking birth control pills.

  3. Post-Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation (PIH): This occurs after an injury or inflammation to the skin, such as acne, eczema, or a burn.

  4. Medications: Certain drugs can cause hyperpigmentation as a side effect.

  5. Medical Conditions: Diseases such as Addison’s disease and other endocrine disorders can cause hyperpigmentation.

Types of Hyperpigmentation

  1. Melasma: Characterised by brown or gray-brown patches, commonly found on the face.

  2. Sunspots (Solar Lentigines): Dark spots that appear on sun-exposed areas like the face and hands.

  3. Post-Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation (PIH): Darkened areas following an inflammatory skin condition or injury.

Preventing Hyperpigmentation

  1. Sun Protection: Daily use of broad-spectrum sunscreen with SPF 30 or higher.

  2. Avoiding Sun Exposure: Wearing protective clothing and seeking shade when outdoors.

  3. Proper Skincare: Using gentle skincare products and avoiding harsh treatments that can cause skin irritation.

Skincare Ingredients for Hyperpigmentation

  1. Vitamin C: An antioxidant that helps to lighten dark spots and prevent further pigmentation.

  2. Retinoids: Promotes cell turnover and improves skin texture.

  3. Hydroquinone: A skin-lightening agent that reduces melanin production.

  4. Niacinamide: Inhibits melanin transfer and reduces pigmentation.

  5. Azelaic Acid: Reduces melanin production and is effective in treating melasma and PIH.

Best Aesthetic Treatments for Hyperpigmentation

  1. Laser Treatments

  • Fractional Lasers: Target pigmented areas with precise laser energy, promoting skin renewal.

  • Q-Switched Lasers: Break down melanin deposits without damaging surrounding skin.

  1. Chemical Peels

  • Glycolic Acid Peels: Exfoliates the skin and promotes cell turnover.

  • Salicylic Acid Peels: Penetrates oil glands and reduces pigmentation and acne.

  • TCA Peels: Stronger peels that treat deeper pigmentation issues.

  1. Microneedling

  • Promotes collagen production and improves skin texture, reducing the appearance of pigmentation.

  1. IPL (Intense Pulsed Light) Therapy

  • Uses broad-spectrum light to target pigmented cells, reducing dark spots and improving skin tone.

Hyperpigmentation can be managed and treated effectively with the right combination of preventive measures, skincare products, and aesthetic treatments. By understanding the causes and types of hyperpigmentation, you can make informed decisions about the best ways to achieve a more even and radiant skin tone.


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